People & References
The entire GSPM laboratory was involved in this project but the four primary people were:
- Professor J.L.(Iain) Campbell: principal investigator
- Zdenek Nejedly: LIPM, PIXE, PESA, a-q modelling
- Mrs. Jackie Marsh: field operations, gravimetric analysis, LIPM
- April Haig: field operations, gravimetric analysis
- Sonya Bells: special study - nitrates
You can find more details about GAViM and related projects in the following publications:
Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.R. Brook , H.A. Wiebe, R.M. Hoff, J.F. Dlouhy and T.F. Dann: Comparison of multielemental analyses of aerosol samples by PIXE, PESA, EDXRF, and IC ; presented in Denton 1994, Nuclear Instruments and Methods B 103 (1995) 473-476
Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, C. Gielen: PIXE and PESA aspects of the Guelph Fine Particulate and Visibility Monitoring program, Nuclear Instruments and Methods B132 (1997) 489-500
D. Fox, K. McDonald, P. Zannetti, Z. Nejedly, Impact of north-western emission changes on visibility in the Rocky Mountain parks , 97-WA70.03, Air & Waste Management Association's 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 1997, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
S.N. Rogak, U. Pott, J.L. Campbell, Z. Nejedly: Fine Particulate Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Vancouver, BC ,97-WP96.02, Air & Waste Management Association's 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 1997, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
R.M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, M. Moran, K. McDonald, Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, S. Pryor, Y. Golestani, W. Malm. Recent visibility measurements in Canada. J. Air and Waste Management Assoc. 48,386-397 (1998)
Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.F. Dlouhy, T.F. Dann, R.M. Hoff, J.R. Brook, and H.A. Wiebe: Inter-laboratory Comparison of Air Particulate Monitoring Data , Journal of Air & Waste Management Association 48 (1998) 386-397
Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.F. Dlouhy, T.F.Dann, R.M. Hoff, J.R. Brooke, A.H. Wiebe. Inter-laboratory comparison of air particulate monitoring data. J. Air and Waste Management Assoc. 48, 386-397 (1998).
Z. Nejedlý, J.L. Campbell, S.N. Rogak, R.M. Hoff, and W.J. Teesdale: Air quality work at Guelph: GAViM and a traffic tunnel study , Nuclear Instruments and Methods B 150 (1999) 398-402
Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, S.N. Rogak and R.M. Hoff Air quality work at Guelph: GAViM and a traffic tunnel study Nucl. Instr. and. Meth. B150, 398-402 (1999)
L. Cheng, H. S. Sandhu, R. P. Angle, K. M. McDonald and R. H. Myrick. Rural particulate matter in Alberta, Canada Atmos. Environment 34, 3365-3372 (2000)
S.Beaulieu, Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, G.C. Edwards, G.M. Dias. Improvement of detection limits of PIXE by substrate signal reduction. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B189, 289-292 (2002).
Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, J. Brook, R. Vet, R. Eldred. Validation of GAViM trace element and black carbon data by inter-laboratory comparisons. Aerosol. Sci. Tech. 37, 96-108 (2003).
H.K.T. Wong, C.M. Banic, S. Robert, Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell. In-stack and in-plume characterization of particulate metals emitted from a copper smelter. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis; in press 2005.
And here are a few links to sites containing GAViM data:
- National Atmospheric Chemistry ( NAtChem ) Particles/Toxics Data Base
- Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis ( CAPITA )
Web pages related to recent projects:
- Egbert '98 - Where do the airborne particles come from?
and some IMPROVE related sites:
- Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments Newsletters
This thesis describes the design and development of a facility for analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples by the techniques of Gravimetric Analysis, Laser Integrating Plate, Proton Induced X-ray Emission, and Proton Elastic Scattering. Mass artifacts on the Teflo filters were evaluated. Gain stabilization of the LIPM station was tested. A new target chamber offering high throughput of samples and flexibility in analysis of different kind of samples has been built. The PIXE analysis deployed two Si(Li) detectors simultaneously to improve the minimum detection limit. An introductory sampling project has been carried out. The air-quality database was subjected to wind-trajectory analysis using an original trajectory viewing-software package.
Summary and Conclusions
A goal of this project was to prepare facilities for analysis of air-quality samples. Having this apparatus built, the University of Guelph can join the worldwide effort to estimate the impact of fine aerosol on the Earth's climate.
Research reported in this thesis included:
- hardware design and realization of a LIPM station, ion beam line, and a target chamber,
- software development focused on automation essential for large scale sampling networks and a trajectory viewing package,
- system calibrations and an initial application to aerosol study.
Aspects of gravimetric analysis of given aerosol filters were investigated. The LIPM station with gain stabilization was successfully tested and provided a large throughput of samples in automatic mode.
The ion beam optics of the existing line have been changed to suit the requirements of analysis of air-quality samples. A new target chamber allowed PIXE analysis with two parallel Si(Li) detectors with a very good detection limit for elements from sodium to lead. A conventional setup with only one detector would require an x-ray filter to suppress intense low energy photon thus sacrificing light element sensitivity. A cross-check on concentrations of species analyzed by both detectors showed an excellent agreement between the two independent measurements.
A 3-month aerosol monitoring project was carried out. The air quality data base created at Guelph is still to be compared to results of analyses done by collaborating laboratories that were not available by the time of writing this thesis.
Wind-trajectory based receptor modelling suggested a sector with main sources of pollutants influencing air quality in South-Western Ontario. The trajectory viewing software package used as a main tool in the modelling was adopted by our colleagues in a laboratory of Environment Canada.
Future research will be focused on the following:
- comparison exercise;
- receptor modelling based on a more comprehensive data set including several trajectories per sampling interval;
- calibration of the LIPM station against ethalometer, which will yield concentration of black carbon in the aerosol.
Meanwhile, an aerosol sampling network is being built across Canada with the analytical centre at Guelph.